

A simpler way to reduce laser rangefinder data The raw dataThe SICK LMS laser rangefinder gives us a line scan of 361 range data points spread over 180 degrees. There are 75 scans per second. This works out to about one point per 20 cm in each axis at maximum range and speed. That's our starting point. We also have INS/GPS information about vehicle speed, roll, and pitch. Line scan dataWe want to measure local terrain tilt and roughness, for which we need the data for a point and its neighbors in some consistent coordinate system. "Tilt" is obtained by fitting a plane to a small number of nearby points. "Roughness" is the standard deviation from that plane. These give us enough data to determine whether a piece of terrain can be traversed. We first translate each data point into a 2D point in the plane of the scan, with the origin at the rangefinder. This is just a conversion from radial to Cartesian coordinates. The cheapest way to do this is to precompute the unit vectors for the 361 directions the laser rangefinder can scan, and multiply each measured point by the appropriate unit vector. The special values the LMS produces (no return, blinded by glare) must also be handled. The processing is very localized. Rather than trying to build a point cloud, we only need to work on three scan lines at a time. On each line scan cycle, we must look at each point in the middle scan line, its neighbors in the current scan, and its nearest neighbors in the adjacent scan lines. We need to look up to 9 points total per set.
The minimal information we need to do this processing for a set of three scan lines is the LMS data, forward speed, roll rate, pitch rate, and scanner tilt angle. We can get the needed relative pitch and roll angles between scan lines by integrating roll rate and pitch rate over one scan line time. This gives us tilt vectors and roughness data in the coordinate system of the middle scan line being worked on. The line scan data can be processed linearly, progressing across the middle line of the three stored lines. The neighbors on the current line are just the previous and next points. The neighbors on the adjacent lines are a bit tougher to determine, because the lines may be offset in both pitch and roll. But it's not that hard. The output of this stage is a row of tilt vectors and roughness data in the coordinate system of the middle scan line. We get one such data item every scan line time. Local drivabilityHere's an initial set of rules.
This is probably too conservative. But it's a good starting point. Transforming the data into a mapTransforming the data points into a consistent coordinate system is the inverse of the process by which graphics programs map data points from a 3D model on a 2D screen, and can be performed by one 4x4 matrix multiply. What we need is a 4x4 transformation matrix which transforms these 2D
points into 3D points in a consistent coordinate system The output coordinate system is that of the current local map. Vector field outputOne output of this process is a 3D vector field, with normal vectors for each scanned point, a "roughness" value for each scanned point, and a "confidence" value, representing how many good data points went into this datum. ("Confidence" here is probably best reduced to a Boolean value; if we have at least five good points contributing to a normal vector, it's a good point.). A simplified systemHere's a somewhat simpler approach. Simplified line scanningFirst, line scan data is interpreted, as above, working on three scan lines at a time. But we assume that the vehicle does not move much between the two scan lines. Our scan rate is 75 Hz If we can damp the movement of the scanner base enough that there's little vibration above 25 Hz, we can perform the threeline comparison very simply, without applying corrections for every point. All we have to do is take the vehicle's up vector (from the INS) and use it to align the up vectors from the laser rangefinder with the real world. On flat terrain, we don't even have to do that. On nearflat terrain, this is enough. On rougher terrain, there are problems. Simplified mappingThe world is divided into squares colored red, green, yellow, and blank.
From the line scanning above, we can initially classify squares. Green squares are flat  low roughness (< 510 cm variation) and low tilt (< 10 degrees). Red squares are high roughness or tilt. Yellow squares are in between. Yellow squares require more processing because we may have to consider them in conjunction with adjacent squares to decide whether they're driveable. Green squares are so flat and level that we can treat any green area as passable, and don't have to evaluate those areas in more detail. As a first cut, we can treat yellow squares as impassable, or red. Unless we don't have a path available over green squares only, we don't need to evaluate yellow squares further. Positive (above the ground) obstacles will be seen on successive scans but at different heights. Each threeline group which includes a positive obstacle should result in a red square. We never want to ignore a positive obstacle. Hence, during updating, red should supersede yellow, yellow should supersede green, and green should supersede blank. Or, higher numbers replace lower numbers. Negative (below the ground) obstacles often won't be seen at all from a distance, because they are occluded by the terrain in front of them. They thus show as blank areas in the map. The output of all this feeds into the fieldbased OpenSteer system, of course. Processing of ambiguous (yellow) areas.Yellow areas may or may not be driveable by our vehicle. For yellow areas, we need to do a more complex evaluation. We need to evaluate patches the size of our vehicle, and decide whether we can drive over that area. ***MORE*** This should be a lazyevaluation system, where we don't evaluate a yellow square unless the field based system needs information about it. To do:  How do multiple scans update a square? Do we need absolute height?  For red and yellow squares, absolute height is important, so we can recognize big height changes. It's not too important for green squares, because they're so flat. Absolute height is noisy, so we don't want to use it too much.  Multiple data points into the same square on multiple scans can turn a square red if there's a big height variation. Do we need to do more than the threeline comparison?  A later scan can turn a square red.  What happens when we see a fence?  Active control of the laser rangefinder to fill in holes in the data. 